viernes, 23 de febrero de 2018

Hidden Heart Risks - Ivanhoe Broadcast News, Inc.

Hidden Heart Risks - Ivanhoe Broadcast News, Inc.


Hidden Heart Risks (2nd Week)

HOUSTON, Texas (Ivanhoe Newswire) — Heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. And it isn’t just traditional risk factors we need to worry about. Even minor infections can pose a risk. Heart attacks are 13 times higher in the week after respiratory infections like the common cold and 17 times higher in the week after flu-like illnesses.

GRAPEVINE, Texas (Ivanhoe Newswire) — Here’s a remarkable story about a woman, who was crushed in a car accident with multiple broken ribs.  Every breath was painful, but she was able to return to work in just eight weeks, thanks to an innovative technical and surgical advancement.

MIAMI, Fla. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — Thousands of couples struggle with infertility. And while the causes may vary, a common condition that few men have heard of can be blocking their fertility. Now, there’s a simple solution that’s helping more couples conceive.

ORLANDO, Fla. (Ivanhoe Newswire) — The American Heart Association says 24 percent of heart attack patients don’t fill their prescriptions within a week after discharge, and 34 percent of heart attack patients with multiple prescriptions stop taking at least one within the first month. Now, a medical company is teaming with one of the country’s busiest hospitals to test an innovative solution.

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. (Invahoe Newswire) — What happens when a baby’s lymphatic system, the system that circulates critical fluids through the body, doesn’t function as it should? For some, the buildup of fluid can be deadly. Tonight we meet Lilly, initially diagnosed with a rare condition during mom’s pregnancy, and the out-of-the box treatment that saved Lilly’s life.


Quote of the week:

The [prison] system does everything within its power to sever any physical or emotional links you have to anyone in the outside world. They want your children to grow up without ever knowing you. They want your spouse to forget your face and start a new life. They want you to site alone, grieving, in a concrete box, unable even to say your last farewell at a parent’s funeral.” 

— Damien Echols


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Today: Reddit “Ask Me Anything” about virtual reality in medicine and health

Photo of Susan Persky, Ph.D.
Image headline: Join us today for a Reddit "Ask Me Anything" on virtual reality in medicine and health
WHAT: Virtual reality, one of the most rapidly expanding areas of tech and gaming, is also playing important roles medicine and health – and for good reason. The ability to simulate experiences expands opportunities for researchers, clinicians and patients in ways that previously seemed limited to the imaginations of sci-fi writers. Here at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), researchers are using virtual reality as a tool to study a host of research questions. They want to know what you're curious about! Ask them anything today on Reddit Science!

WHO: Susan Persky, Ph.D., head of the Immersive Virtual Environment Testing Area (IVETA), and associate investigator in the Social Behavioral Research Branch at NHGRI; Patti Brennan, R.N., Ph.D., director, National Library of Medicine (NLM); Victor Cid, M.S., senior computer scientist, Disaster Information Management Research Center at NLM; John Ostuni, Ph.D., staff scientist, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; William Kistler, M.A., lab manager of the IVETA at NHGRI; Jeremy Swan, B.A., biovisualization specialist with the Computer Support Services Core at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

WHEN: Ask your questions starting at 8 a.m. Eastern today. At 12 p.m., our hosts will join the conversation to answer them!

HOW: Log into or sign up for a free Reddit account. Ask your questions here.

REDDIT AMAs EXPLAINED: A Reddit AMA is an opportunity to ask interesting individuals questions about anything – and everything! AMAs are an interactive experience – ask questions or "up-vote" your favorites, and gain insight into the lives and work of NHGRI scientists.
Ask A Question!

Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions - National Cancer Institute

Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute

02/20/2018 11:26 AM EST

Source: National Cancer Institute - From the National Institutes of Health
Related MedlinePlus Pages: Breast CancerMammography

Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

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What are dense breasts?

Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the relative amount of these different types of breast tissue as seen on a mammogram. Dense breasts have relatively high amounts of glandular tissue and fibrous connective tissue and relatively low amounts of fatty breast tissue.

How do I know if I have dense breasts?

Only a mammogram can show if a woman has dense breasts. Dense breast tissue cannot be felt in a clinical breast exam or in a breast self-exam. For this reason, dense breasts are sometimes referred to as mammographically dense breasts.

How common are dense breasts?

Nearly half of all women age 40 and older who get mammograms are found to have dense breasts. Breast density is often inherited, but other factors can influence it. Factors associated with lower breast density include increasing age, having children, and using tamoxifen. Factors associated with higher breast density include using postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and having a low body mass index.

How is breast density categorized?

Doctors use the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, called BI-RADS, to group different types of breast density. This system, developed by the American College of Radiology, helps doctors to interpret and report back mammogram findings. Doctors who review mammograms are called radiologists. BI-RADS classifies breast density into four categories, as follows:
If you are told that you have dense breasts, it means that you have either “heterogeneously dense” (C) or “extremely dense” (D) breasts.
The four breast density categories are shown in this image. Breasts can be almost entirely fatty (A), have scattered areas of dense fibroglandular breast tissue (B), have many areas of glandular and connective tissue (C), or be extremely dense (D). Breasts are classified as “dense” if they fall in the heterogeneously dense (C) or extremely dense (D) categories.

Does having dense breast tissue affect a woman’s mammogram?

Dense breast tissue appears white on a mammogram, as do some abnormal breast changes, such as calcifications and tumors. This can make a mammogram harder to read and may make it more difficult to find breast cancer in women with dense breasts. Women with dense breasts may be called back for follow-up tests more often than women with fatty breasts.

Are dense breasts a risk factor for breast cancer?

Yes, women with dense breasts have a higher risk of breast cancer than women with fatty breasts, and the risk increases with increasing breast density. This increased risk is separate from the effect of dense breasts on the ability to read a mammogram.

Are breast cancer patients with dense breasts more likely to die from breast cancer?

No. Research has found that breast cancer patients who have dense breasts are no more likely to die from breast cancer than breast cancer patients who have fatty breasts, after accounting for other health factors and tumor characteristics.

Should women with dense breasts have additional screening for breast cancer?

In some states, mammography providers are required to inform women who have a mammogram about breast density in general or about whether they have dense breasts. Many states now require that women with dense breasts be covered by insurance for supplemental imaging tests. A United States map showing information about specific state legislation is available from
Nevertheless, the value of supplemental, or additional, screening tests such as ultrasoundor MRI for women with dense breasts is not yet clear, according to the Final Recommendation Statement on Breast Cancer Screening by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of supplemental imaging tests in women with dense breasts. NCI’s Contact Center can tell you about clinical trials and provide tailored clinical trial searches to help you learn more about clinical trials related to breast density and breast cancer screening.
Recent research has suggested that for women with dense breasts, a screening strategy that also takes into account a woman’s risk factors and protective factors may be the best predictor of whether a woman will develop breast cancer after a normal mammogram and before her next scheduled mammogram.
As you talk with your doctor about your personal risk for breast cancer, keep in mind that:
NCI’s PDQ® summary for Breast Cancer Prevention includes a section that lists risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer.
It may help to ask your doctor these questions, to put your risk for breast cancer into context:
  • What are the findings of my recent mammogram?
  • Are other additional screening or diagnostic tests recommended?
  • What are my personal risk factors for breast cancer? Protective factors for breast cancer?
  • What steps can I take to lower my risk of breast cancer?

What are researchers hoping to learn about the relationship between breast density and breast cancer?

Some important questions include:
  • Can imaging tests such as 3-D mammography (breast tomosynthesis), MRI, and ultrasound help provide a clearer picture of breast density?
  • Are there certain patterns or areas of dense breast tissue that are particularly “risky”?
  • Why do some women with dense breasts go on to develop breast cancer, while others do not? Can biomarkers be identified that help predict whether breast cancer will develop in a woman with dense breasts?
  • Are changes in breast density over time associated with changes in breast cancer risk?
You can read more about research in this area in Exploring the Relationship Between Mammographic Breast Density and Breast Cancer from NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). DCEG research covers a range of risk factors for cancer, including breast density, based on issues identified through epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory observations, as well as public health concerns.

Study of first-graders shows fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalent in U.S. communities | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Study of first-graders shows fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalent in U.S. communities | National Institutes of Health (NIH)

National Institutes of Health (NIH) - Turning Discovery into Health



Study of first-graders shows fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalent in U.S. communities

NIH-funded research examined over 6,000 children to determine prevalence of FASD ranged from 1.1 to 5 percent.
A study of more than 6,000 first-graders across four U.S. communities has found that a significant number of the children have fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with conservative rates ranging from 1 to 5 percent in community samples. The new findings represent more accurate prevalence estimates of FASD among general U.S. communities than prior research. Previous FASD estimates were based on smaller study populations and did not reflect the overall U.S. population. The study was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health.
FASD is an umbrella term for a range of health effects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Individuals with FASD may experience growth deficiencies, facial abnormalities, and organ damage, including to the brain. The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the brain can result in a range of neurobiological deficits that contribute to physical, cognitive, behavioral, and social challenges throughout life.
“Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of developmental disabilities worldwide,” said NIAAA Director George F. Koob, Ph.D. “Estimating the prevalence of FASD in the United States has been complex due to the challenges in identifying prenatally exposed children. The findings of this study confirm that FASD is a significant public health problem, and strategies to expand screening, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment are needed to address it.”
The study was conducted by the Collaboration on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence (CoFASP) consortium, which studies the prevalence of FASD among U.S. school children. Before the study began, consortium members established standardized classification criteria for FASD based on facial features, growth, and neurodevelopmental performance. Co-led by Philip May, Ph.D., of the University of North Carolina Nutrition Research Institute, Kannapolis, and Christina Chambers, Ph.D., of the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, the findings are reported online in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Researchers collected data between 2010 and 2016 on 6,639 children in four communities in the Midwest, Rocky Mountain, Southeast and Pacific Southwest, sites that were selected to be more reflective of U.S. community populations than previous studies. At each site, first-graders in public and private schools were recruited across two academic years and evaluated based on the FASD criteria. Prenatal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers or other close relatives.
The researchers found that the prevalence estimates for FASD among the selected sites ranged from 1.1 to 5 percent. This was the most conservative estimate and assumed that no additional cases of FASD would be found in first-graders who did not participate in the study. Using a “weighted prevalence” approach that assumed that the rate of FASD in children who were evaluated would be the same in all eligible first-grade children in each community, the estimated prevalence of FASD was higher—ranging from 3.1 to 9.8 percent among the study sites. Of the 222 children diagnosed with FASD in the study, only two had been previously diagnosed with FASD, although many parents and guardians were aware of the children’s learning and behavioral challenges. This finding suggests that children with FASD often go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
“We believe our study is the first to use school-based assessments, a common methodology and classification system, and expert in-person evaluations for the full range of FASD on many children from communities across the United States,” said May.
“This comprehensive approach should reflect estimates that more closely resemble the prevalence of FASD in the United States, and further highlights the public health burden of FASD,” added Chambers.
About the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA): The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health, is the primary U.S. agency for conducting and supporting research on the causes, consequences, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of alcohol use disorder. NIAAA also disseminates research findings to general, professional, and academic audiences. Additional alcohol research information and publications are available at:
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit
NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health®


May, P.A., et al. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in 4 US Communities. JAMA. Online February 6, 2018.